English Departments

We are always trying to do our best to teach English by using the same proven methods and techniques as applied in other nations around the world. Teachers and books are chosen carefully, because for effective English language teaching the right teachers and proper resource materials are very important.

We employ only qualified, experienced teachers.

English is taught as follows:


Grades 7 A/E

Main course

All About English

This course builds on lessons the students have learnt in primary school. It is specially designed to help students become more confident and competent users of the language .i.e. use English fluently and accurately. The lessons are conducted in an engaging and interesting way with ample opportunities for practice in order to enhance students’ skills in the areas of listening, reading, speaking and writing.


Interactions 1 Reading

This course is based on the book Interactions 1 Reading and is aimed at high beginning and pre-intermediate learners. The book is divided into 12 chapters, with each chapter being divided into 4 parts. Many of the chapters include an activity aimed at improving learner vocabulary skills as a post-reading activity, and a class discussion activity allowing students to integrate oral skills with the reading objectives.


Empowers English

The aim of ‘Conversation’ is to enable students to speak and express ideas clearly, to listen courteously to others, and to gain greater confidence, not only in contributing to group discussions but in giving presentations before an audience. Students will relate the language learnt to authentic and meaningful contexts and make connections between the classroom and real world situations through meaningful tasks/activities.  Finally, this class will guide students through strategies and critical thinking skills that help prepare them for academic achievements.

Grades 7 B/F

Main course

Cutting Edge Elementary

We start with the very basics of English and then move on to grammar points such as when to use different grammar forms and how to pronounce them correctly. Students will improve their reading and listening skills with the goal of improving their overall language skills. Some techniques for improving spelling will also be given, with students who have major problems practicing them in depth. The overall main objectives will be:

Reading: Recognizing explicit meanings, selecting, collating, and summarizing facts and ideas. Students answer in their own words in order to check comprehension.

Writing: Writing to describe, how to provide effective explanations.

Grammar and punctuation: Using full stops, capital letters and other basic punctuation.

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary: Learning a wide range of new vocabulary and practicing how to use it correctly.

Speaking and listening: Speaking for a variety of purposes.


Interactions Access Reading

This course provides opportunities for students to practice their reading skills, namely reading for entertainment and academic purposes. The Interactions Access Reading textbook is designed to meet these demands and to bring students’ reading competency to a new level by encouraging them to develop skills in reading by critically analyzing a particular text. After analyzing the body of the text students will be able to discuss the ideas that are introduced.


Writing to Learn – The sentence (Beginning to High Beginning)

This course is designed to give students the basis for writing grammatically correct sentences, and well-organized, cohesive paragraphs in the later stages. Throughout the course, students will follow Writing to Learn, the Sentence which is designed to improve the student’s ability to write accurate and descriptive English sentences for academic purposes. It should also be noted that emphasis is placed on vocabulary acquisition, grammar practice, and writing, editing, rewriting, and journal creating skills.


Interactions Access Listening/Speaking

The aim of ‘Conversation’ is to enable students to speak fluently, express ideas clearly, listen courteously to others, and gain greater confidence by contributing to group discussions and giving presentations before an audience. Students will relate the language they have learnt to authentic and meaningful contexts and make connections between the classroom and real world situations through practical tasks/activities.  Finally, this class will guide students through the various strategies and critical thinking skills that will help prepare them for academic achievements.

Grade 8

Main course

New Cutting Edge Pre Intermediate

This course is based on the New Cutting Edge Pre-Intermediate textbook, which has a multilayered, topic based syllabus. It includes thorough and comprehensive work on grammar, pronunciation, and the skills of listening, reading, speaking and writing.

Learners are encouraged to boost their knowledge of grammar, and the opportunity to use the English language is provided in a natural, communicative way. This is followed up thoroughly through a wide range of communicative and written practice exercises.

A wide vocabulary is vital to communicative success, so new lexis is introduced and practiced at every stage. Students are given the opportunity to ask the teacher for words and phrases they need. They are encouraged to refer to the mini dictionary, and study tips are given to students to do this more effectively.

Main course English combines all the different skills necessary to learn the language of life.


Interactions 1 Reading 

This course is based on the Interactions 1 Reading textbook and it is aimed at high beginning and pre-intermediate learners. The book is divided into 12 chapters, with each chapter being divided into 4 parts. Many of the chapters include an activity aimed at improving learner vocabulary skills as a post-reading activity, and a class discussion activity allowing students to integrate oral skills with the reading.


Interactions 1 Speaking/Listening

This course is designed for students with pre-intermediate proficiency in speaking and listening. Students will have opportunities to practice informal conversation and formal speaking tasks through ‘Before You Listen’ and ‘After You Listen’ activities. During the course students will closely follow the Speaking/Listening Silver Edition of Interactions 1, which contains updated recordings and dialogues to engage students with content relevant to their lives, studies, and work. One of the major objectives of this course is also development of more comprehensive note-taking and listening discrimination skills. Above and beyond that, students will also have a chance to enhance their ability to engage in short discussions and dialogues by means of various entertaining pair work and group work activities, as well as role-plays and drama. More emphasis will be given to improving pronunciation and intonation skills.

Grade 9

Main course

New Cutting Edge Intermediate
This course uses the New Cutting Edge Intermediate textbook, which is a multilayered, topic-based syllabus that includes thorough and comprehensive work on grammar, pronunciation, and the
skills of listening, reading, speaking and writing. Learners will be encouraged to develop their knowledge of grammar, and
to use the English language in a natural, communicative way. This is
followed up thoroughly through a wide range of communicative and written practice exercises.


Interactions 2 Speaking/Listening

This course is designed for students with intermediate proficiency in speaking and listening. During the course students will closely follow the Speaking/Listening Silver Edition of Interactions 2, which contains updated, contemporary lectures and dialogues to engage students with content relevant to their lives, studies and work. One of the major objectives of this course is also development of more comprehensive note-taking and listening discrimination skills. As in the previous course, students will also have a chance to enhance their ability to engage in short discussions and dialogues by means of various entertaining pair work and group work activities, as well as role-plays and drama. Once again emphasis will be given to improving pronunciation and intonation skills.

Grade 10

Main course

New Opportunities Education for Life

The aim of this course is to provide a firm foundation for Intermediate Level students to further their English skills through combined focuses on Reading, Vocabulary, Speaking, Listening, and Grammar.  By dealing with interesting and meaningful content on topics related to the students’ own interests such as cross-curricular themes, cultural input, and literature focus, students will have ample opportunities to fully engage with English as spoken in the modern world.  Moreover, students will develop confidence to speak English effectively outside the classroom in real life situations.

New Opportunities Intermediate encourages learner autonomy through self-study features. It also provides opportunities for self-assessment of students’ performance and progress, and also makes them aware of opportunities for learning outside the classroom and trains students to deal with most exam task types around the world. Students are given plenty of opportunities to develop a wide range of listening skills both in terms of text types and tasks types. Pronunciation focuses on contractions, intonation, word stress for difficult words, and prominence (stressed words in extended speech).

Grade 11

Main course

Cutting Edge Upper Intermediate

This course emphasizes the development of literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic life.  Students are encouraged to read widely, both for their own enjoyment and to further their awareness of the ways in which English can be used. The course also develops general analysis and communication skills such as synthesis, inference, and the ability to order facts and present opinions effectively. The textbook New Cutting Edge Upper Intermediate, has a multilayered, topic-based syllabus which includes thorough and comprehensive work on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and the skills of listening, speaking, and writing. It gives special emphasis to communication, the use of phrases and collocation, active learning and study skills, revision and recycling.

Grade 12


Mosaic 1 Silver Edition

The Reading course focuses on complex vocabulary and comprehension strategies to take students beyond reading, applying reading across the curriculum. Students practice and apply skills and strategies to longer and more complex passages. The textbook emphasizes academic content and experiences, providing students with opportunities to explore real world issues, discuss academic topics, and learn ways of organizing their thoughts that accommodate diverse learning and thinking styles.


Mosaic 1 listening and speaking.

Students in this course will be using their listening skills and own ideas on numerous topics, such as co-operation and competitiveness, relationships, health and leisure, advantages and disadvantages of high technology and low technology, money matters, creativity, etc. They will also use their own initiative and create role plays depicting common situations and debate certain topics. They will also learn about people who have had great achievements in life and their strategies for succeeding, so that hopefully they will use them in their own life to accomplish personal goals.

The technological revolution is omnipresent. Telephone networks, medical diagnostic tools, banking, education, manufacturing control, design … There is no absolute limit.

Although users of new computer technology can often be blissfully unaware of the sophistication of the systems they are using, those who invent the new technology and create new applications must obviously be experts in their field. The explosion in the use of computing has quietly created a modern day industrial revolution. The last few years, particularly, have seen the explosive growth of a new industry world-wide -Software Engineering. In the case of a sophisticated piece of technology, the computer software can be far more complicated to design and build than a suspension bridge or high-rise building.  So it’s not surprising that modern software engineering needs software architects, designers and builders.

Software engineers need to be able to understand people, to know how best to make innovative technology user-friendly or even invisible. They like problem solving and enjoy being creative. They also like working with people in teams. Training to be a Computer Scientist is ideal for today’s young women and men who want a rewarding and challenging career in a profession which has so much to offer in improving everyone’s quality of life.

Paragon ISC has a well deserved and recognized reputation in the subject. On the teaching side, the school constantly reviews the nature and content of the courses it offers in order to best equip its graduates.

Computer Science is concerned with the specification, design, construction and utilization of computer systems. As such it embraces subject areas such as software engineering, hardware architecture and design, systems analysis, information systems, communications, graphics, simulation and modeling, artificial intelligence and human computer interaction. Computer systems are often highly complex in nature and must be reliable in operation. In order to control this complexity and realize reliable systems, Computer Science uses mathematics for its underlying theory and essential formalisms, and engineering for many of the concepts and approaches required.

The principal aims of the computer courses at Paragon ISC are:

  • To teach the necessary skills, tools and techniques to enable our graduates to embark on careers as professional software engineers or to become suitably qualified to undertake research in Computer Science
  • To teach the fundamental principles of Computer Science.

The main subject streams present the following core components:

  • Introduction to Computer, Hardware
  • Operating Systems, Microsoft Windows 7, Linux
  • Microsoft Office 2010 Applications (Word, Excel, Power Point,  and Access)
  • Graphic Design Programs (Photoshop CS4 and CS5)
  • Web Design (Web Expression 2010)
  • Typing in both the English and Khmer languages)
  • Internet, Paint, Corel Photo-Paint, Google Earth
  • Encarta Premium
  • HTML
  • Adobe Reader, Illustrator
  • Ulead GIF Animation
  • Xara 3D
  • Crocodile (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry)

Course objectives for computer lessons, grades 7 to 10:

Windows 7

Windows 7 is used in the lab so all students in these grades are taught how to use the interface, windows explorer, windows accessories, change system settings, as well as administrate devices and networking, security, printing, backing up, and troubleshooting.

Virtual Computer

Students build a virtual desktop computer and replace laptop components by manipulating virtual representations on their computers.  They install virtual power supplies, CPU’s, heat sinks, ram, hard drives, CD-ROMs, floppy drives, motherboards, and hook up all the internal power, and data cables.

Study skills

Because students need to retain knowledge, note taking skills are essential. These skills are practiced (and built upon) in these grades.  Specifically, students are taught how to write down only the main ideas, abbreviate, and are encouraged to be creative while taking notes.  Students learn effective ways to review notes and learn about additional resources they can use to get the best results from the limited time they have to spend studying.

Grade 7

Here we teach students some basic facts about computers, introducing the main components (hardware) that make them work.  Names and uses of external / internal connections and ports, common input/output devices (mouse techniques such as clicking and dragging, using keyboard shortcuts, etc.) are taught. Windows 7’s secrets are revealed and students learn about the many new features, such as ‘aero peeks’.  Emphasis is given to practical knowledge regarding file manipulation, so the students can begin using programs easily and effectively.

Grade 8

Because the keyboard is an important tool to input data into our p.c.’s, computer lessons for this grade deal partly with learning how to improve typing skills via the Mavis Beacon lesson platform.  In addition, students learn MS Word 2010, a powerful application that does much more than help you create documents.  Techniques covered include creative formatting as well as editing, and how to save time using themes, templates, views, and reference tools.  Students are also given a basic knowledge of both large and small computer systems in use today and a peek at how we network them together.

Grade 9

Students are taught MS Excel 2010, including file conversions, importing data, customizing, charts, forms, controls, macros, graphics, and the intricacies of formulas.  Then students will also get a deeper look into networking protocols and computer systems, as well as industry specific program solutions.

Grade 10

Students are introduced to a RDBMS (relational database management system) and are taught how to design and implement an MS Access relational database including reports and forms. Queries, linking, macros, import and export of data including SQL linking are presented in detail. Students will then get a chance to look at and practice with binary and hexadecimal numbering systems and computer algorithms.

Grade 11


Information includes not only text and numbers, but images as well. The expression “a picture is worth a thousand words” is as true today as ever.

Adobe Photoshop is the industry-standard tool for digital imaging, which makes Photoshop expertise a valuable commodity in the workplace. Learning Photoshop is also a good way to learn imaging concepts. Concepts you learn from working with Photoshop apply to other imaging tools as well (including Photoshop Elements, which has a very similar user interface and features).

Grade 12

Expression Web

Expression Web is a professional design tool for creating modern, standards-based sites that deliver superior quality on the web.

The Mathematics program for grades 7-to-12 inclusive has been derived from the Cambodian Education curriculum and International Curriculums.

The main goals of mathematics education are to prepare students to:

Use mathematics confidently to solve problems.

  • Communicate and reason mathematically.
  • Appreciate and value mathematics.
  • Commit to lifelong learning
  • Become mathematically literate adults, using mathematics to contribute to society.

At the completion of the program, students are supposed to have developed a positive attitude toward mathematics and have a basic knowledge of numbers, patterns and relations.  This is so they can become confident in their ability to undertake the problems of a changing world, experiencing the power and usefulness of mathematics. Students should also gain an understanding and appreciation of the contributions of mathematics, both as a science and as an art, to civilization and to culture.

Grade 7

  • Factors and Multiples
  • Integers
  • Rational Numbers
  • Estimation and Approximation
  • Fundamental Algebra
  • Number Sequences
  • Algebraic Equations and Simple Inequalities
  • Perimeter and Area of Simple Geometrical Figures

Grade 8

  • Factors and Multiples
  • Integers
  • Rational Numbers
  • Estimation and Approximation
  • Fundamental Algebra
  • Number Sequences
  • Algebraic Equations and Simple Inequalities
  • Perimeter and Area of Simple Geometrical Figures
  • Volume and Surface Area

Grade 9

  • Factors and Multiples
  • Integers
  • Rational Numbers
  • Estimation and Approximation
  • Fundamental Algebra
  • Number Sequences
  • Algebraic Equations and Simple Inequalities
  • Perimeter and Area of Simple Geometrical Figures
  • Volume and Surface Area
  • Ratio, Rate and Speed
  • Percentages
  • Functions and Graphs
  • Statistics
  • Basic Geometrical Concepts and Properties
  • Angle Properties of Polygons
  • Geometrical Constructions

Grade 10

  • Congruence and Similarity
  • Direct and Inverse Proportions
  • Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions
  • Algebraic Manipulation and Formulae
  • Simultaneous Linear Equations
  • Pythagoras Theorem
  • Volume and Surface Area
  • Graphs of Linear Equations in Two Unknowns
  • Graphs of Quadratic Equations
  • Set Language and Notation
  • Statistics
  • Probability

Grade 11

  • Solutions to Quadratic Equations
  • Indices and Standard Form
  • Linear Inequalities
  • Coordiante Geometry
  • Matrices
  • Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations
  • Linear Graphs and Their Applications
  • Congruent and Similar Triangles
  • Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids
  • Trigonometrical Ratios
  • Further Trigonometry
  • Mensuration – Arc Length, Sector Area, Radian Measure
  • Geometrical Properties of Circles

Grade 12

  • Complex Numbers
  • Derivatives
  • Integrals


The student learns basic definitions from Science and Math in Science-Math. During the 1st term of the academic year the student studies Math and in the 2nd term the student studies Science. The student has a Science-Math lesson once a week.

Only Grade 7 students study Science-Math. The student learns:


  • The Order of Natural Numbers
  • Not Equal To ; Equal To
  • Greater Than ; Greater Than or Equal to
  • Less Than ; Less Than or Equal to
  • Concept of Addition
  • Concept of Subtraction
  • Concept of Multiplication
  • Concept of Division
  • Order of Operations
  • Factor, Multiple and Divisibility
  • Prime Numbers
  • Composite Numbers
  • Concept of Fractions
  • Types of Fractions
  • Powers of Rational Numbers
  • Square Roots
  • Radicals
  • Introducing Science
  • Measuring Length
  • Measuring Area
  • Measuring Volume
  • Density
  • S.I. Units
  • Time
  • Rate
  • Speed
  • Diversity of Plant Life
  • Diversity of Animal Life

Physics is a unique experience for the students at Paragon ISC . Our goal is to provide the student with an appreciation and understanding of the physical world. An equally important goal is to prepare students for college courses and careers that require an understanding of physics. These include the sciences, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, education, agriculture, transportation, meteorology, and many other fields.

One essential tool in developing an understanding of physical principles is mathematics. Mathematical descriptions of motion, force, energy, electricity, magnetism, and light allow us to describe what we observe and predict what we have yet to observe in the most efficient manner possible. So in physics, mathematics is used as a tool to summarize and extend our observations.

Physics is about concepts and real events around us. Mathematics is used as a very useful part of the language of physics. You will find the answers to some of the physical world’s mysteries, such as why the sky is blue and what gives a saxophone its brash sound.

There will be a number of activities to help students learn physics. Students observe and watch lectures, demonstrations, or presentations, work through labs and activities, participate in group lab activities, and are encouraged to ask questions during physics courses. Students are urged to frequently confer with one another, their facilitator, and the teacher. Discussion is a very important factor in learning concepts.

Physics is taught concurrently in the Khmer and English languages, with different textbooks and different teachers. The students are able to learn physics from 2 different, helping them to understand key physics concepts better. Our students have gotten high marks during Government examinations and we receive a lot of positive feedback expressing gratitude in this regard from our former students who go on to study abroad.

Worksheets, which contain supplementary information and/or questions, are regularly given to students. Completing these worksheets is required.

Course Outline

The British curriculum is used for physics taught in English. GCE ‘0’ level ‘Physics Matters’, written by Charles Chew and Chow Siew Foong, is used in grade 9 and 10. ‘College Physics’, written by Raymond Serway & Jerry Faughn, will be used in grades 11 and 12.

Grade 9

Grade 9 is one of the most important steps in physics education. Students learn about physics terms and begin to understand what is really going on around them. Students realize that physics is everywhere. What are physical quantities? Why must we have them? Why must physical quantities and units be clearly defined? How can we effectively measure large distances and small lengths? How is time measured? What is the difference between speed and velocity? What is acceleration? How can we use graphs to describe motion? What is free fall and terminal velocity? What is a force? What causes changes in motion? How do we calculate the magnitude of a force? Is friction a boon or a bane? Why isn’t weight always measured in kilograms? What is inertia and how does it affect us? Why does a ship float in water whereas an iron ball sinks? What is the turning effect of a force and how is it measured? How can we make an object more stable? How is energy related to work? How can we calculate kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy? What is the ‘Principle of Conservation of Energy’? What is ‘power’? How is pressure related to force and area? What is atmospheric pressure and how is it measured? What is pressure in liquids and how is it used to do work? How are temperature and heat related? How can we construct a temperature scale? What is a thermocouple thermometer? What is the kinetic model of matter and how is it used to describe the structure of solids, liquids and gasses? How is the motion of the molecules related to temperature? What causes transfer of thermal energy? What are the three processes of thermal energy transfer? How is temperature related to the internal energy of matter? What is heat capacity and specific heat capacity? What is the difference between boiling and evaporation?

Students will not need advanced mathematics skills for this course, though basic mathematics is a plus.

Topics covered in grade 9 are:


-What is physics?

-Physical Quantities and SI Units

-Measurement of Length

-Measurement of Time


-Distance, Time and Speed

-Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

-Speed-Time Graphs

-Acceleration of Free Fall



-Scalars and Vectors

-Addition of Vectors

-Forces and Motion

-Friction and Its Effects

Mass, Weight and Density

-Mass and Weight, Inertia


Turning Effect of Force


-Principle of Moments

-Center of Gravity


Energy, Power and Force





-Pressure in Liquids

-Gas Pressure


-Temperature and its Measurement

-Common Temperature Scales

-Thermocouple Thermometer

Kinetics Model of Matter

-The States of Matter

-Pressure in Gasses

Transfer of Thermal Energy

-Transfer of Thermal Energy




-Applications of Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Properties of Matter

  • Heat Capacity
  • Melting and Solidification
  • Boiling and Condensation
  • Latent Heat
  • Evaporation

Grade 10

Here students learn how and why ordinary objects move as they do. Along the way they are introduced to extremely important fundamental quantities: displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, energy and momentum. The deep significance of these quantities dawns on you after you study physics for a few years.

Algebra, trigonometry, and calculus are used without apology. If you have serious ambitions in science, you must become competent in applying mathematics to the physical world. You will get a good intellectual workout solving lots of quantitative problems!

Topics covered in grade 10 are;

  • Introduction to physics, SI units and measurement
  • Motion in one dimension, uniform motion
  • Vectors and 2 dimensional motions
  • Velocity and acceleration in two dimensions, projectile motion
  • Newton’s Law of Motion
  • Work energy and power
  • Momentum and impulse

In the laboratory that accompanies this course you will learn how physics works in daily life.

Grade 11

In grade 11 students learn how the planets move, how the curves in roads are built for safe turning, how waves travel, what makes electricity useful, and how electric devices work. Angular quantities and trigonometry are frequently used. Algebra is essential for these calculations.

Topics covered in grade 11 are:

Static Electricity

  • Electrostatics
  • Insulators and Conductors
  • Electric Fields
  • Hazards and Applications of Electrostatics

Current Electricity

  • Electric Current
  • Electromotive Force & Potential Difference
  • Resistance

D.C. Circuits

  • Series Circuits
  • Parallel Circuits
  • Resistors in Series and Parallel
  • Potential Divider
  • Transducers

Practical Electricity

  • Uses of Electricity
  • Measuring Electrical Energy
  • Danger of Electricity
  • Safe use of Electricity & Home


  • Magnets and Materials
  • Magnetic Induction
  • Magnetization  and Demagnetization
  • Magnetic Fields
  • Temporary and Permanent Magnets


  • Magnetic Effect of a Current
  • Force on Current carrying Conductors
  • Forces on a Rectangular Current Carrying Conductor

Electromagnetic Induction

  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Alternating Current Generators
  • Transformers
  • Converting A.C to D.C.
  • Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

Grade 12

During this last year of physics education in Paragon International School, the students will learn why some materials attract each other while others do not, how electricity is produced, why we use alternating current (a.c.) to transport electrical energy, when the first radio was invented, how television and mobile phones work, that animals use magnetism to navigate, what ‘light’ actually is, where the colors of the rainbow come from and how eyeglasses, microscopes, and telescopes are made. Students frequently use trigonometric graphs & functions as well as geometry. Trigonometry and geometry knowledge is essential for calculations.

Topics covered in grade 12 are:

Magnetism, magnetic materials and earth Induced voltages and current, inductance A.C circuits, generators and RLC circuits Nature of light, reflection and refraction Geometrical optics, images formed by plane mirrors, spherical mirrors and lenses. Wave optics and the wave nature of light. Optical devices, telescope, microscope and the eye Relativity and Modern physics A wide variety of demonstrations multimedia presentations and class activities help students visualize physics and understand it better.

As Paragon ISC we offer a valuable chemistry education which is taught in an exceptional environment. As we know, chemistry is not a subject that can only be taught in the classroom, there must also be laboratory activities which foster interest and learning among the students.  All these facilities are in place here at Paragon.

Chemistry may be greeted with avid interest, disinterest, or even antipathy by students. Whether students will be caught up in the excitement of chemical demonstrations and laboratory experiments, or experience difficulties learning topics like atomic structure, the ‘mole concept’, and organic chemistry, is definitely important both for them as individuals and also to society in general. Many significant, beneficial discoveries are a result of chemical research; from the discovery of elements to recent mass spectrometric studies. Chemistry teachers have to prepare students for examinations by creating effective learning environments and utilizing practices that address the ‘affective aspect’ of student learning (e.g. self-confidence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations). By doing this we can fully engage students and maintain interest and excitement while learning chemistry.

Although our curriculum is a typical examination-focused one, the pedagogical strategies employed both in and out of school can be uniquely interwoven with informal learning experiences for students, thus narrowing the cognitive and affective gap. In the long term, this may help in building a community that appreciates, or at least understands, the effect chemistry has on our daily lives.

Ingrades 7, 8, and 9, students have 2 sessions of chemistry per week. We teach chemistry 3 sessions a week for grades 10, 11, and 12.

Students learn the answers to the following questions during the course:

  • What is classification?
  • How do we describe the properties of materials?
  • How do we choose suitable materials for different uses?
  • What are the basic ‘building blocks’ of matter?
  • How can elements be classified?
  • How can we distinguish among elements, compounds and mixtures?
  • What are separation techniques?
  • What are some applications of separation techniques in everyday life?
  • How can we obtain pure water from seawater?
  • How can we distinguish between solutes, solvents and solutions?
  • What are some uses of solvents and solutions in homes and industries?
  • What are the factors that affect solubility and the rate of dissolving of substances?
  • What is the nature of common acids and alkalis?
  • What are the effects of acidic, alkaline, and neutral solutions on indicators?
  • What are the effects on a ‘universal indicator’ when acidic and alkaline solutions are mixed?
  • How can we classify the changes around us?
  • What chemical and physical changes does matter undergo?
  • How can we make use of these changes and benefit from them?
  • Why do solids, liquids and gases have different physical properties?
  • How do smells travel?
  • How can we explain melting, freezing, boiling and condensation?
  • What is matter made up of?
  • What are the characteristics and structure of an atom?
  • How is an ion formed?
  • How can we identify the types of atoms in a compound?

Students do many experiments which help lead them to recognize and discover the laws of chemistry.

Students prepare drama shows, presentations, and information cards to help them to master the lessons and believe in themselves. They watch many videos about chemistry during the term.

Worksheets and many kinds of puzzles are given to them to review their lessons and for making lessons enjoyable.

Chemistry teachers have to prepare the students for the following year’s curriculum and examinations.

In grades 7-8 students learn the basics;

  • Classification of Materials
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Separation of Mixtures
  • Solutions and Suspensions
  • Acids and Alkalis
  • Changing Matter
  • Particulate Model of Matter
  • Atoms and Molecule

In grade 9 the students learn;

(O-Level Chemistry, Part-I)

  1. Measurements in Chemistry
  2. Purification of Substances
  3. Solids, Liquids and Gases
  4. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  5. Structure of Atoms
  6. Chemical Bonds
  7. Structure and Properties of Substance

In grade 10 the students learn;

(O-Level Chemistry Part-II)

  1. Relative Mass of Atoms and Molecules
  2. The Mole
  3. Chemical Calculations
  4. Structure of Periodic Table
  5. Group Properties in the Periodic Table
  6. Properties of Metals
  7. Extraction and uses of Metals
  8. Acids and Bases
  9. Neutralization and Salts
  10. Ammonia
  11. Chemical Analysis

In grade 11 the students learn;

(O-Level Chemistry Part-III)

  1. Redox Reactions
  2. Electrolysis
  3. Energy from Chemicals
  4. Speed of Reaction
  5. Air
  6. Fuels and Crude Oil
  7. Alkanes and Alkenes
  8. Alcohols and Organic Acids
  9. Macro Molecules

In grade 12 the students learn;

(Checkpoint Chemistry, University

of Cambridge International Examinations)

Acids and bases

  1. Physical and chemical changes
  2. Investigating everyday materials
  3. Particle theory
  4. Mixtures and separating techniques
  5. Atoms and elements
  6. Further reactions
  7. Compounds and mixtures
  8. Metals and non-metals
  9. Corrosion
  10. Patterns of reactivity
  11. Preparing salts
  12. Exothermic and endothermic reactions
  13. Rates of reactions
  14. The periodic table

We present some of the lessons if time permits, which means when the teacher has time and the year has gone well.  Even though not in the Cambodian curriculum, extra subjects are presented to the students in order for them to comprehend chemistry well.

Biology is the scientific study of life.  The more we learn about life, the more fascinating it becomes.  Modern biology is as important as it is inspiring.  Greater knowledge of genetics and cell biology is providing new tools in fields such as medicine and agriculture. Molecular biology provides new tools for the field of criminal science.  Learning about the ecology helps us to understand the causes and consequences of global warming, etc.

The goals of the biology curriculum are to prepare the students to be “scientifically literate”, to learn how to learn, to develop a curiosity of the world around them, and to use the skills and knowledge of science and technology as they apply to their personal and social decisions.  The aims are to become confident citizens, be suitably prepared and eager for studies beyond Ordinary Level, stimulate interest in and care for the local and global environment.

Three objectives will be kept in mind during the biology lessons and examinations.  The first objective is ‘knowledge with understanding’.  Students are expected not only to know but also to understand the facts and concepts in biology.  Another objective is handling information and solving problems.  If students have a good knowledge and understanding, they should be able to apply the knowledge to new situations. The last objective is experimental skills and investigations.  This involves practical work.  Students are introduced to the correct experimental techniques and skills.  The focus is on relevant and accurate observations, measurements, and recording data appropriately and accurately.

Grade 7 – 8

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth and taxonomy. Biology is one of the largest and most important branches of science.

The main goals of biology lessons are to prepare students to understand natural life and to awaken their curiosity about living organisms and life.

The students learn the answers of these questions with the help of biology lessons:

  • Why do we need to classify living organisms?
  • How are plants and animals classified?
  • How do we construct and use a dichotomous key to classify and identify living organisms?
  • What are habitats, populations and communities?
  • What are the roles of producer, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem?
  • How are nutrients and carbon recycled in the ecosystem?
  • How does energy flow through a food chain?
  • What is photosynthesis?
  • What are the raw materials and energy needed for photosynthesis?
  • What are the ‘growing conditions’ for ornamental plants and large-scale crops?
  • What is aerobic respiration?
  • What are the differences between respiration and breathing?
  • What are the differences between photosynthesis and respiration?
  • What are the differences between a plant cell and animal cell?
  • What is ‘division of labour’?
  • How are tissues, organs and systems formed?
  • How are water and food substances transported in plants?
  • What is the role of blood in the human body?
  • Why is food important for survival?
  • What is digestion?
  • What are the main parts of the human digestive system?
  • What are enzymes and what do they do?

Students prepare drama shows, presentations, and fact cards to help them to understand lessons completely and believe in themselves. They watch many videos about biology during the course.

Worksheets and many kinds of puzzles are given to them to review their lessons and for making lessons enjoyable.

Biology teachers have to prepare the students for the next year’s curriculum and   examinations.

Ingrade 7, students have 2 sessions per week of basic biology.

The students learn:

  • Diversity of  Plant and Animal Life
  • Ecology
  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration
  • Cells
  • Transport in Living Things
  • Digestion in Human Beings

Grade 9

Students learn about animal and plant cells.  They will examine a cell under the microscope and compare the visible differences in structure of the animal cell and plant cell.  Students will be able to state the relationship between cell functions and cell structures.

In the next stage, we will talk about nutrition.  What about nutrition in plants?  Students will learn that photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which plants make their food.  They will see that most forms of life are completely dependent on photosynthesis. On the other hand, what about nutrition in animals? What is a balanced diet, what sort of diet can cause heart diseases, and why must most food be digested?

What is the difference between inspired and expired air?  Why do we feel pain during intense physical exercise?  The answers for these questions will be given in the chapter about respiration.

Finally, students will learn about the structure and function of kidneys, the removal of toxic materials and waste products out of the body.

Grade 10

Once food has been digested, how do the simple products get into the cells?  What enables cells to continue taking substances that they already have in excess?  The chapter about osmosis and diffusion answers these questions.  In the next stage we will study about the ability of the body to regulate body temperature, etc.

After that, we compare the transport system in animals with the transport system in plants.  Blood is pumped all over the body by the heart.  But how are water and manufactured food transported in plants?

The nervous system helps the human body to sense and to respond to changes.  Our brain is part of the nervous system, which coordinates the movement of our eyes while we read.

Grade 11 and 12

Development of organisms and continuity of life is the most important topic in this grade.  Students learn about asexual and sexual reproduction.  Different cell divisions are defined; one giving rise to identical cells and another resulting in the production of gametes.  In the next stage we explore DNA, genes, mutations, and genetic engineering.

Another topic is about the relationships between organisms, and between organisms and the environment: The Sun is the principal source of energy input for biological systems; the relationship of the different players in ‘food webs’; the transmission and control of the malaria pathogen; the effects of humans on the ecosystem; consequences of deforestation; effects of water pollution, etc.

In grade 12, time permitting, we will also talk about the use and abuse of illegal drugs: the effect of antibiotics, alcohol and tobacco smoke on the body.  Another topic we explore is enzymes and the effect of temperature and pH on them.  Wrapping up will be learning about the fascinating realm of microorganisms and biotechnology.  How can microorganisms play an important role in decomposition, in the production of food like cheese, bread or alcohol?  How do we produce penicillin?

Why do children need physical education?

The simple answer is so that they will learn how to remain physically active throughout their lifetime and reap the benefits of doing so, especially the health benefits. But regular exercise not only helps the child’s body become and stay healthier in terms of immune system function, circulation, strength, flexibility and hand/eye coordination, it also greatly enhances the child’s self-image. Participation in sports can dramatically boost children’s self-esteem.

Being physically fit is more than just physical strength, stamina, or dexterity. It also delivers benefits for your mind. It alters your personality in a positive way. This changes a person for the better and being involved in an organized social sport develops social skills, teamwork skills, and many other socially-oriented skills that will be a huge benefit to that child as he or she becomes an adult.

Numerous other benefits have been summarized by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE, 2002) and are presented here.

They include:

Regular, healthful physical activity: An increasing number of youngsters are overweight and obese. Regular physical activity, as well as an appropriate diet, is the best antidote to eliminate the current obesity epidemic and also provide a positive alternative to ‘screen time’ (both television and computers).

Skill development: In a quality program of physical education, children learn the fundamental motor skills that enable them to develop the competence that creates confidence, leading to safe and successful participation in a wide range of sports and physical activities as adults.

Improved physical fitness: Children are encouraged to improve their muscular and cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility.

Reinforcement of other subjects: Movement can be used to reinforce the understanding of many subjects taught in the classroom (e.g., mathematics and reading). Movement is also associated with enhanced brain function.

Self-discipline: Youngsters can learn valuable lessons about accepting responsibility for their personal motor skills and fitness development.

Goal setting: Physical education classes are an excellent way of helping youngsters understand the process of setting and achieving goals, especially physical fitness ones.

Leadership and cooperation: Many physical education activities require youngsters to work in groups to solve problems, or as a team. These opportunities become an excellent arena for developing both leadership and cooperation skills.

Stress reduction: A ‘good workout’ helps ease stress, tension, and anxiety, and may result in better attention in the classroom.

Relationships: Sports and physical activity are an excellent way to meet and make new friends. Confidence in one’s physical abilities encourages youngsters, and later adults, to socialize more easily and ‘fit into’ a variety of situations.

Most people already know how important physical education lessons are. What else can we do for our children?

First of all, we must remind ourselves that children tend to mimic their parents. If you smoke cigarettes, they are more likely to smoke cigarettes and if you avoid physical exercise and lead a sedentary life, they may tend to do something similar. For them, it might be playing games on the computer instead of watching TV, but it is still time spent sitting and not doing any physical activity. That’s why we need to be a good example for our children. We need to start regularly engaging in physical activity if you want to encourage your child to do the same thing.

Secondly, you can get help from one of our P.E teachers choosing the right sports program for your child.  Recommendations are made after considering what students might do well in considering natural strengths and weaknesses, and something can always be found that offers just what the child needs and what they can be good at.

Lastly, I just want to say just one more thing ‘Do everything you can to keep them active’